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The Grey Areas in KCSE English Paper one (101/ 1) : The Making of an A in English.

Series Two


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The Grey Areas in KCSE English Paper one (101/ 1): The Making of an A in English.

Series Two

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  1. Onomatopoeia
  2. Idiophones
  3. Alliteration
  4. Assonance
  5. Consonance
  6. Rhyme



The gaping goldfish in his bowl

I’m sure is happy on the whole:

He has that silly vacant look.

Because he has never read a book.

The rhyme scheme in this poem is regular. It is aabb. Rhyme creates rhythm/enhances musicality.

There is Alliteration in the first line. “The gapping gold fish” Always underline the sound alliterated.

In alliteration, it is the sound that matters-not the letter.

         These things are tough.

There is no alliteration in this line. The letters ‘th’ in ‘These’ and ‘th’ in ‘things’ represent different sounds.

          Things are thorough.

The letters ‘th’ represent the same sound. This is Alliteration.

           The cook killed a fly

Letter ‘c’ and ‘k’ represent the same sound. This is Alliteration.

             The cock in the centre is mine.

There is no alliteration in this line ‘c’ in ‘cock’ and ‘c’ in ‘centre’ do not represent the same sound

Consonant letters can represent assonance.

            My right style.

Letter ‘y’ represents sound /ai/. This line has assonance.

Idiophone and Onomatopoeia should not be confused. Examples of idiophones are ‘pata’, ‘ku’, ‘ko ko’. These are actual sounds.

Onomatopoeia, on the other hand, are words that imitate the actual sounds. Words like ‘hiss ‘, ‘buzz’, ‘moo’, whistle’ among others.

Preparation for performance


  • Research on the topic
  • Research on the target audience
  • Visit the venue early
  • Consult the experts


To manage stage fright

  • Take a deep breath
  • Take a sip of water  
  • Psyche yourself “yes I can”
  • One may say a silent prayer    

To attract the attention of the audience:

  • clear the throat
  • Start with a riddle, proverb, tongue twister or anecdote.
  • Greetings
  • Hit a drum appropriately to get the attention.

     To sustain their attention

  • Maintain eye contact
  • Take an appropriate upright position on stage.
  • Vary the tone appropriately
  • Make use of gestures and body movements meaningfully.
  • Be audible   

The audience can benefit fully by:

  • Maintaining meaningful eye contact
  • Appropriate sitting posture-sitting upright
  • Taking notes
  • Avoiding distractions
  • Avoid daydreaming and such behaviour.

The audience can be restless if:

  • The speech is too long
  • The topic is sensitive
  • The speaker is out of topic
  • The speaker is using difficult words
  • The room may be hot, stuffy or poorly ventilated
  • The audience could be hungry



  • Have mock presentation
  • Research on the target audience
  • Look for appropriate props and costumes

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Getting the attention of the audience.

  • Greet them
  • Clap your hands
  • Ring a bell
  • Ask relevant question


  • Use body movement- be specific. What type of body movement and where it applies to the narrative or poem.
  • Maintain eye contact
  • Involve the audience. The audience can be involved by letting them join in the performance/chorus




  • Put all your documents in order
  • Get more information on the firm/company/institution
  • Have a mock interview
  • Groom yourself
  • Dress decently
  • Arrive early
  • Seek advice from experts on interviews.


  • Do not come in without knocking
  • Switch off your mobile phone
  • Do not sit unless asked to
  • Answer questions as asked
  • Maintain appropriate/meaningful eye contact
  • Do not fidget in your seat
  • Do not interrupt
  • Be honest
  • Thank the interviewer


  • Begin with greetings-to strike rapport
  • Use tact-say the commodity is inferior

                              -the seller may overpraise the commodity



       4) Be courteous

       5) Sensitive and patient.

Good negotiations should have:

  • A win-win. Everyone is satisfied
  • End with goodwill
  • End as friends
  • flexibility


Good dialogues should have the following:

  • Politeness-please, kindly, may I
  • Turn-taking
  • Interrupt politely-allow me to differ
  • Sensitive
  • Invite politely for one to contribute


Fill in the dialogue

JACK: Good morning. Did you see the new bus?


JACK: Gorgeous? The bus is ugly.


JACK: I can’t be jealous.


Read through the dialogue three times before you start filling in. What you fill in should be logical.

JACK: Good morning. Did you see the new bus?

PETER: Good morning. It was gorgeous. I saw it.

JACK: Gorgeous? The bus is ugly.

PETER: You are just being jealous.

JACK: I can’t be jealous.

Note: Contracted forms are accepted in such dialogues.


  • Hierarchy
  • Greetings
  • Introduction
  • Body
  • Conclusion
  • Thanks
  • Wish them all


Giving directions

  • Use simple precise language
  • Use compass points-to the East, South
  • Use left/right
  • Use landmarks
  • Estimate distances
  • Estimate time
  • Do not give alternatives for they are confusing.


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